- BrandPrayon, Alwernia
- Country of manufactureBelgium
- Food energyкДж/100 г kJ / 100 g
Sodium tripolyphosphate - the salt Na tripolyphosphoric acid 5 P 3 O 10 . Sodium tripolyphosphate is proekstraktsionnoy phosphoric acid. It is a crumbly white powder, by the presence of inclusions and impurities of a different color, as well as large conglomerates can visually judge the poor quality of the product. It may come in the form of pellets.
Sodium tripolyphosphate produced food and technical. Available in two grades: A and B.
Synonyms Sodium tripolyphosphate: e451 - STPP, sodium triphosphate, natriytrifosfat; Eng. pentasodium triphosphate, pentasodium tripolyphosphate, sodium triphosphate; it. Pentanatriumtriphosphat, Pentanatriumtripolyphosphat. Natriumtriphosphat; fr. triphosphate de pentasodium, tripolyphosphate de pentasodium, triphosphate de sodium.
Commonly used product name: Sodium tripolyphosphate.
Getting. General information.
Powdered sodium tripolyphosphate is a product of thermal phosphoric acid. Sodium tripolyphosphate is prepared by thermal dehydration of mixtures of orthophosphoric acid and its further crystallization vacuum.
Sodium tripolyphosphate may be carried out by technology tower by neutralizing phosphoric acid with soda ash solution obtained by further drying and subsequent calcination of orthophosphate salts (TU U 24.1-33365882-001: 2005).
Possible ways of obtaining sodium triphosphate represented by the following chemical reactions. Sodium triphosphate is synthesized by condensation of phosphoric acid: 6H 3 PO 4 + 5Na 2 CO 3 → 2Na 5 P 3 O 10 + 5CO 2 + 9H 2 O.
Under laboratory conditions, it is synthesized with phosphate and sodium diphosphate: NaPO 3 + Na 4 P 2 O 7 → Na 5 P 3 O 10 .
It is also possible the synthesis of sodium trimetaphosphate: Na 3 P 3 O 9 + 2NaOH → Na 5 P 3 O 10 + H 2 O. And also: 2Na 2 HPO 4 + NaH 2 PO 4 → Na 5 P 3 O 10 + 2H 2 O.
Application. General information.
Sodium tripolyphosphate is widely used in the national economy. Sodium tripolyphosphate is for use:
- When dilution of thick paste, clay, kaolin;
- For adjusting the pH;
- For the manufacture of detergents, cleansers, bleach, disinfectants, decontamination agents;
- In the manufacture of paper, leather and plastics;
- In the manufacture of medicinal and cosmetic products;
- The production of foodstuffs;
- For corrosion protection, water treatment and other purposes.
The main part of produced sodium tripolyphosphate is spent on the production of detergents. Technical tripolyphosphate is widely used in the chemical industry as an additive to detergents for washing at all temperatures. It is also used for the manufacture of tools for washing dishes, sinks, toilets, cleaning bathrooms and washing of glasses; boilers and flushing water treatment for industrial purposes.
It also is widely used in textile and leather industry for the bleaching and washing, flotation ore, for dispersion paints, in the manufacture of synthetic rubber in the electrolysis process, water softener in order to prevent precipitation and scale to stabilize perhydrol, when drilling oil well, in the manufacture of paper bleaching, and a number of other industries.
In addition, for water used as the dispersion of the reagent in the paper industry and the production of paints and lacquers, as a diluent in the ceramic industry as a degreaser in surface treatment of metals, and as a reagent to improve the manufacture of surface enamel.
Sodium tripolyphosphate food is used in the food industry. The meat industry is used as a stabilizer, a pH regulator, coloring retainer antioxidant.
In the food industry, it is used as a color fixative, pH regulator, emulsifier stabilizer. Sodium tripolyphosphate is used to improve the texture of meat and fish products, as salt in the melter-production of processed cheese, as an additive in the production of cream, condensed milk and dried in the confectionery industry.
E451 tripolyphosphate (STPP) used in the food industry in the form of the hexahydrate is used in the production of canned meat and fish and frozen products to improve the texture, as well as in the production of processed cheese as the salt-melter. Often used in conjunction with other phosphates and citrates. Alone or in combination with other stabilizers used in the manufacturing of cream, condensed milk, dry milk and cream. sodium triphosphate according to GOST 13493-86 "Sodium tripolyphosphate. Technical conditions "included in the list of raw materials in the GOST 18236-85" Products boiled pork. Specifications ", GOST 18255-85" Products of smoked-cooked pork. Specifications ", GOST 23670-79" boiled sausages, frankfurters and sausages, meat loaves. Technical conditions. "
In the food industry the sodium tripolyphosphate used as a stabilizer, and E has an index of 451. The main purpose of binding the moisture content of sodium tripolyphosphate in proteins. Application of the powder increases and as a consequence the pH of alkaline reaction in protein containing foods (meat, fish) stabilized with water binding occurs in the products of the process. Sodium tripolyphosphate has the ability to cleave the myosin and actin, which is the main reason for its use in the food industry.
Almost all food phosphates and mixtures thereof, are used in the fishing industry and myasopererabotochnoy are alkaline reaction. The addition of alkaline phosphates in meat and fish leads to an increase in pH, and as a consequence, to increase water binding properties of proteins.
In addition to the food industry triphosphates it is very widely used in the production of household chemicals and cosmetics.
The main substance - the ability to emulsify and decompose fat, and that led to its widespread use in the production of household chemicals. Sodium tripolyphosphate is used as an additive in all types of fabrics washed in water of any temperature; in the processing of water used as an energy carrier in heating systems, washing of different fabrics in the home and laundry plant, prevents re-deposition of dirt on the fabric. The powder is suitable for washing glasses and bathtubs, heavily soiled and oily dishes, cleaning bathrooms, sinks, toilets. It is able to reduce water hardness and thereby improve detergency powder. It has excellent performance when washing heavily soiled and oily dishes, glasses, used for cleaning sinks, tubs, toilets.
In order to wash very dirty laundry, it is recommended to soak in a warm solution of sodium tripolyphosphate (in a ratio of half a glass of the drug at a bucket of water). It is desirable to leave clothes soaked in this solution for 2-3 hours. After that, the normal washing, boiling and, if necessary, using detergents. washing process completes thorough rinsing clothes in clean water.
Instructions for use.
Before washing laundry pre-soak in a warm solution of sodium tripolyphosphate (1/2 cup bucket of water). Very contaminated laundry is recommended to leave in the solution for 2-3 hours. Then, the laundry is washed and boiled with detergents, if necessary. After washing the laundry must be thoroughly rinsed in clean water.
Food and technical sodium tripolyphosphate in the economy.
Looking around, we can see that our existence is virtually impossible without chemicals. That is why today there is a considerable number of chemical plants, the results of which cover most of our needs.
These plants are significant sources of pollution. After chemical plants followed by metal production plants, refineries, PVC factories, plastics factories, coal power plants, petrochemical plants.
Chemical products can be divided into technical and food. However, there are substances, such as sodium tripolyphosphate which may be both technical and food.
Technical sodium tripolyphosphate is used in glass, ceramic, chemical, and other industries in the manufacture of detergents and synthetic chemicals, water treatment. But more commonly sodium tripolyphosphate is an additive to washing powder. It prevents the deposition of dirt on the clothing.
So, food sodium tripolyphosphate, which price is slightly higher technical meets state standards, it - a food additive E451, is used in the meat and dairy industry in the form of spheres hexahydrate in the manufacture of meat or canned fish and frozen products; help solubilize various proteins, in the manufacture of processed cheese, it is also used in the manufacture of cream, condensed milk, citric acid and other products. It is often used in combination with other citrates and phosphates.
However, there is a downside: the technical sodium tripolyphosphate - very dangerous for the water basin, because only one gram of sodium tripolyphosphate contribute to the emergence of kilograms of various microorganisms and decompose, they emit large amounts of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, which leads to the death of the other inhabitants of the river. Russia, China, Kazakhstan: the main producing countries of sodium tripolyphosphate. That is why in many civilized countries have long have laws limiting the use of phosphates in detergents, but alas, the Russian laws more "tolerant" that allow foreign and domestic producers to sell products containing harmful substances to the environment.
The use of sodium tripolyphosphate to prevent pipeline corrosion.
To prevent corrosion of pipes and heat exchangers should apply water treatment inhibitors, protective coatings and electrochemical protection.
In the application of inhibitors and protective coatings in water recycling systems should include thorough cleaning of heat exchangers and pipelines from deposits and fouling. The inhibitor should be used as sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium hexametaphosphate, ternary composition (hexametaphosphate or sodium tripolyphosphate, zinc sulfate, and potassium bichromate), sodium silicate, and others. The most effective type of corrosion inhibitor should be determined in each case empirically.
When using sodium tripolyphosphate and hexametaphosphate to create a protective film of a phosphate concentration of inhibitors in circulating water systems for 2-3 days should be taken 100 mg / l (calculated as P 2 O 5 ) in water added to maintain the phosphate film - 7-15 mgl on P 2 O 5 The velocity of water flow in heat exchangers should be at least 0.3 m / s.
Sodium tripolyphosphate e451 - STPP in the food industry.
The additive E451 (5-substituted by) a synthetic origin and a zero level of risk (safe for health). In the food industry it is used as an acidity regulator, stabilizer, antioxidant, color fixatives teksturatory, complexing agent, emulsifying salt, antioxidant synergist. When designation E451 supplements on product packaging as the following names may be used: E451, trіpolіfosfat tripolyphosphate.
Triphosphate (food additive E451) - a salt tripolyphosphoric acid. In view triphosphates white powder are obtained by synthesis of various substances.
Preparation e451 sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) - thermal dehydration of mixtures Na 2 HPO 4 and NaH 2 PO 4 at a molar ratio of 2: 1 was prepared anhydrous sodium triphosphate, followed by vacuum crystallization of 17-20% of its -x p-moat hexahydrate obtained.
There are two subspecies of the additive E451:
- E451i - sodium triphosphate (tripolyphosphoric acid salt having the chemical formula Na 5 P 3 O 10 );
- E451ii - potassium triphosphate (potassium salt tripolyphosphoric acid with the formula Na 5 P 3 O 10 ).
Almost all food phosphates and mixtures thereof, are used in the fishing industry and myasopererabotochnoy are alkaline reaction. The addition of alkaline phosphates in meat and fish leads to an increase in the acidity of products, and as a consequence, to increase water binding properties of proteins.
The E451 food additive used as a stabilizer, acidity regulator, color fixative, an antioxidant. Triphosphates used in the manufacture of special drinks for athletes, soft drinks. E451 additive is added to the sterile and pasteurized milk, ice cream, young cheese, cultured butter, hit by the egg mixture for omelettes and other egg products. Food additive E451 is used in the manufacture of pasta, dried soups, minced fish, syrups, decorative products (eg icing), sandwich margarine, confectionery. In addition, food additive E451 is widely used in the preservation of shellfish, processing of fresh and frozen fish, baking a variety of cakes, pies and other baking.
The additive E451 can be used in products both independently and in special mixtures in combination with other stabilizers.
Sodium tripolyphosphate hygienic standards e451 - Particleboard 70 mg / kg of body weight per day. Codex (STPP): e451 allowed sodium tripolyphosphate as emulsifying salt into melted cheese in an amount of up to 9 g / kg *; 10 standards for meat and fish products in amounts of from 3 to 5 g / kg *; 6 standards as a stabilizer in an amount of from 1 to 5 g / kg in dry Islands alone or in conjunction with other stabilizers.
Sodium tripolyphosphate e451 RF allowed consistency as stabilizer, emulsifier, thickener, teksturatora, coupling agent, flour and bread improver in the pre-fried potatoes, frozen in an amount up to 100 mg / kg; specialized sports drinks, soft drinks artificially saline in an amount up to 500 mg / kg; in articles of fruit, candied fruit in an amount of up to 800 mg / kg; in sterilized milk, condensed milk having a solids content of less than 28% cream (except milk and butter), fruit ice, minced fish "surimi" alcoholic beverage product in an amount of up to 1 g / kg; a concentrated milk having a solids content of more than 28% in an amount of up to 1.5 g / kg.
e451 sodium tripolyphosphate in young cheeses, beverages based on milk chocolate and barley, oil and sour cream, pasta, cider (apple and pear), tea and herbal teas, dry, instant - in the amount of up to 2 g / kg; in milk powder and powder, flour - of up to 2.5 g / kg; in desserts, including milk-based (ice cream), soups and broths (concentrates), syrups (decorative coatings) for flavored milk shakes, ice cream, syrups for pancakes, crepes, cakes in the amount - up to 3 g / kg; in glazes for vegetable and meat products - in an amount of up to 4 g / kg; in cream, pasteurized, sterilized, cream whipped and their counterparts in vegetable oils, margarine sandwich, potato processing products, including frozen, chilled and dry, sugar confectionery, whipped batter fermented liquid cake mix, whipped egg mixture for scrambled eggs, a liquid batter, cereal products produced by extrusion technology, snacks, specialty foods, fish raw fillets, fish and shrimp paste, sauces - in an amount of up to 5 g / kg meat products - in an amount of up to 5 g of added phosphate at 1 kg raw meat.
Sodium tripolyphosphate e451 in products from crustaceans frozen - in the amount of up to 5 grams of added phosphate per 1 kg of the raw material of crustaceans, in canned crustaceans - in the amount of up to 1 g of added phosphate per 1 kg of raw crustacean in fish mince frozen and articles thereof - up to 5 g of phosphate added to 1 kg of fish raw material; in desserts, dry powder mixture in an amount of up to 7 g / kg; in powdered sugar, dried egg products (egg products, protein, yolk), solezameniteli salt and up to 10 g / kg; in the processed cheese and their analogs, bakery and pastry products, dry mixes based on flour with sugar, disintegrants baking cupcakes, cakes, pancakes, etc., drinks based on vegetable proteins in an amount of up to 20 g / kg.; opacifiers in the beverage in an amount of up to 30 g / kg; biologically active food supplements in an amount according to TI, alone or in combination with other phosphates in terms of P 2 O 5 (n. n. 3.2.26,3.6.56,3.7.15 SanPin 126.96.36.1993-03).
* Individually or in combination with other phosphates.
E451 additive approved for use in the food industry of the Russian Federation. Also, the additive E451 is included in the list of permitted food additives in Ukraine.
Sodium tripolyphosphate production of synthetic detergents.
Synthetic detergents contain surfactants along with a number of bulk additives (inorganic and organic) that perform specific functions in the manufacture, storage and use of the CMC. Some of these additives, while not in themselves have detergent properties, are capable of increasing detergency and bleaching effect CMC solutions.
As inorganic mineral additives used in the production of CMC alkali salt is usually sodium and potassium salts of peroxoacids and organic optical whiteners.
By alkaline salts include: sodium phosphate (Na 3 PO 4 ) diphosphate (pyrophosphate) and potassium (Na 4 P 2 O 7 , K 4 P 2 O 7 ), sodium potassium tripolyphosphate (Na 2 P 3 O 10 , K 5 P 3 O 10 ), sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ); a peroxide salts include sodium perborate (NaBO 2 • H 2 O 2 • 3H 2 0), sodium percarbonate (Na 2 CO 3 • 1.5H 2 O 2 • H 2 O), optical brighteners. Of neutral inorganic salts the most commonly used sodium sulfate (Na 2 SO 4 ).
One of the factors which reduce the effectiveness of the cleaning action, the water hardness is as soaps (fatty acid sodium salt) in the washing process to react with the cations Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ and form insoluble calcium and magnesium salts of fatty acids. Recently, not only do not take part in the cleaning process (which leads to overspending detergents), and deposited on the fabric as pollution. With the use of CMC, which include surfactants and active additives (particularly large role phosphates), this disadvantage is completely eliminated. Phosphates bind alkaline earth metal ions and iron complexes soluble in water:
Na 5 P 3 O 10 + CaSO 4 → Na 3 CaP 3 O 10 + Na 2 SO 4 ;
Na 3 CaP 3 O 10 + CaSO 4 → NaCa 2 P 3 O 10 + Na 2 SO 4 ;
Na 5 P 3 O 10 + MgCl → Na 3 MgP 3 O 10 + 2NaCl;
Na 3 MgP 3 O 10 + MgCl → NaMg 2 P 3 O 10 + 2NaCl.
Phosphates can convert insoluble calcium salts of fatty acids into the solution, whereby modern detergents, containing from 25 to 40% (wt.) Of sodium phosphate, are capable of dissolving even the scale:
(RCOO) 2 Ca + Na 5 P 3 O 10 → 2RCOONa + Na 3 CaP 3 O 10 .
Furthermore, phosphate pollution prevent redeposition onto the fabric, keeping them in the wash liquor in a dispersed state. sodium phosphates exhibit substantial synergy in admixture with many anionic surfactants. Sodium polyphosphates properties determine their widespread use in the production of CMC.
Sodium tripolyphosphate (Na 5 P 3 O 10 ) - are widely used in the CMC; in addition to the complexing ability it has the ability peptize pigment contamination. Sodium tripolyphosphate malogigroskopichen, but forms a hexahydrate upon absorption of water. Prolonged stay in the aqueous sodium tripolyphosphate solution, it may be subjected to hydrolysis (in the presence of acids and alkalis and at a temperature above 80 ° C accelerates hydrolysis) to form the diphosphate and monosodium phosphate or hydration to form crystalline salts:
Na 5 P 3 O 10 + 6H 2 O → Na 5 P 3 O 10 • 6H 2 O;
Na 5 P 3 O 10 • 6H 2 O → Na 4 P 2 O 7 + NaH 2 PO 4 + 5H 2 O.
The resulting sodium tripolyphosphate hexahydrate powder flowability improves CMC (this should progidratirovatsya not less than 70% phosphate is added to the composition), and increases the viscosity of CMC composition (so it is necessary that the cooking CMC composition was prepared and minimum composition was fed to drying as soon as possible). Stability tripolyphosphate enhanced by the addition to the composition of organic nitrogen compounds or salts of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid - Trilon B.
Sodium tripolyphosphate comes in two versions (form 1 and form 2), which differ in crystal structure - coordination of sodium atoms. The first of the two modifications of thermally less stable and is characterized by a high rate of failure, the second - is more stable.
When dissolved tripolyphosphate, containing a significant amount of Form 1, to sparingly soluble composition formed lumps, due to the advent of lumps crystalline layer surface, within which is contained the anhydrous tripolyphosphate and other phosphate. In both forms of hydration to form one and the same crystalline - hexahydrate sodium tripolyphosphate Na 5 P 3 O 10 • 6H 2 O, which is converted into diphosphate and sodium dihydrogen phosphate in the dehydration. For non-caking powdered CMC content in the anhydrous Form 1 tripolyphosphate sodium should not exceed 24 - 32% (wt.). Tripolyphosphate. used for CMC in our country, it contains up to 10% (wt.).
Increasing temperature accelerates the hydrolysis of phosphate and pH increase reduces their decomposition. Hydrolysis of the tripolyphosphate in the process of preparation of the composition takes place to a small extent, and by drying the composition - a few more, so it is advisable to enter a part of it in dry form into the final CMC powder.
Increased production of sodium tripolyphosphate in the world went on as long as there was a problem with the overgrowth of algae ponds. Since the absence of CMC sodium tripolyphosphate composition reduces consumer properties detergents being actively searches other equivalent substitutes. The bulk of the sodium tripolyphosphate is spent on CMC production, but it also is widely used in textile and leather industry for the bleaching and washing, flotation ore, for dispersion paints, in the manufacture of synthetic rubber in the electrolysis process, water softener in order to prevent precipitation and scale to stabilize perhydrol, the drilling of oil wells in papermaking for bleaching and a number of other industries.